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lecture notes 2017-2018

11 April 2018. ‘Object Voices’, talk by Cara Sutherland

Our final lecture of the season was given by Cara Sutherland, former Director of the Mental Health Museum. In this role, she hosted numerous projects with the public, current and former patients and staff, using objects from the museum collection. Her experiences of the widely differing stories that can be told about a single object and how they challenge our assumptions formed the substance of her talk.

She began by examining historical ideas of the concept of madness. How were people with conditions such as schizophrenia thought of in the pre-industrial period? How were they treated by those close to them? As towns expanded they were less likely to be looked after by their family, community or church, but centrally in institutions. Initially these institutions ran on the maxim “if you act like a wild animal, we will treat you like a wild animal” and inmates were kept enclosed and chained up.

In the late 18th century, Phillippe Pinel and William Tuke in France and England respectively visited institutions and were horrified by the conditions. They identified the inmates as vulnerable sick people who should be looked after. In Britain campaigning by Tuke, a Quaker in York, amongst others led to the County Asylum Act for paupers in 1808. This in turn led to the creation of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield 200 years ago this year.

The West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum was built with the care of the patient in mind. Sir William Charles Ellis, the first medical director of West Riding Asylum thought that patients  should be given purpose, a comfortable space and a community, and that recovery was possible. The hospital was self-sufficient in many ways, using the skills of the patients e.g., as cobblers or butchers. Some patients may even have been kept on a little longer than necessary if they were useful. In 1862, patient James Walker, used his draughtsman’s skill as an architectural student to produce a plan of the Asylum. The finished lithographic print shows the buildings from a bird’s eye view. The detail and complicated angle of the picture may indicate savantism.

The inmates took part in many crafts, the women, both staff and patients produced crochet items and paintings which were used to decorate the day room/dining room. A picture of a 1990s room shows a lack of plants, soft furnishing or artwork, all present in a 19th century photo with individual rather than communal dining tables.

A teddy donated by a former patient, who credited the hospital with saving his life, is a reminder that children also need treatment and together with the children of female patients, many have lived within the asylum.

Among the objects looked at by the public were a spoon and fork stamped with ‘WRA’ for West Riding Asylum, dating from 1890 and still used in 1970 at the then Stanley Royd Psychiatric Hospital. One person felt sorry for patients branded as lunatics surrounded by stamped items as a constant reminder, a former employee however was reminded of communal dining, a sign of a safe community; they were proud to have worked there. Neither opinion is wrong.

Our attitude towards some objects may change with hindsight. Lockable boots (to enable patients who remove their shoes to go outside in the fresh air) and soft restraint shirts (which prevent self-harm)  can appear to a modern eye like instruments of punishment and may on some occasions have been abused by those in authority, but were originally designed for safety and to help with rehabilitation. ECT machines and padded rooms, both of which are held at the museum, are portrayed in a poor light in the media, but may represent a cure/temporary respite if used correctly.  The padded cell in Wakefield, from 1930, is the only complete one in existence. Does the Museum have a responsibility to encourage discussion with difficult exhibits?

The Museum holds case files, including photos, nurses’ reports and details of treatment, including that of Esther Dixon. She reports delusions of harassing figures at night and requests to be kept in an isolated room where she felt safe. Before rapid sedation was possible, padded cells prevented physical harm and with low light and sound levels producing a calming atmosphere were a valid method of treatment. In modern hospitals, these have been replaced by quick-acting sedatives and de-escalation spaces.

There is an absence of first hand patient accounts. One unusual set of objects in the museum are embroidered samplers made by Mary Frances Heaton. A former tutor who became obsessed with her employer, she used her skill at sewing to give an account of her situation and her feelings. She used scripture and patterns to express herself.

James Crichton-Brown, director from 1866-1876, created a journal ‘Conversassiones’ (later The Brain Journal, still in print) on neuropsychology and held an international conference on the brain. Sketches of a brain lesion exist in the archive, showing the beginnings of the discipline. The Alexander performance scale, a type of psychometric testing, was also developed at Wakefield in the 1940s.

Cara answered several questions covering objects which have survived renovation and demolition of various buildings, the pioneers of mental health care in the UK and the portrayal of asylums on film and TV on which some museums consult.

Perception is important and the jangling sound of keys can sound like a prison. In the 1990s when the original building was decommissioned keys from the 1890s were still being used. Electronic keys replaced them but remain a symbol of authority and the possibility of misuse. 200 years from now what will people look back on and think barbaric? Cara left us with an excellent overview of the history of West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, the treatment of mental health problems and much food for thought on how we tell stories using objects.

14 March 2018. Members’ Evening: Charles Watson: Unsung Hero of Wakefield (the Court House’ architect) by John Seacome and The France Collection at Wakefield Museum: photographs of the Slazenger sports equipment factory by Shirley Levon.

Society matters being swiftly dealt with during the AGM, we enjoyed talks by two of our members  on very different subjects. John Seacome spoke about local architect Charles Watson and Shirley Levon shared her thoughts on the France photographic collection portraying Horbury-based sports company, Slazenger.

John Seacome introduced us to Charles Watson, born in 1771, youngest of 7 children, in Hodroyd Hall, South Hiendley to architect, John Watson. He started out with more senior architect, William Lindley of Doncaster (designer of buildings at Doncaster Racecourse) and jointly worked on a number of projects, including St John’s Church, Wakefield.

St John’s Church was needed to accommodate the overflow from the congregation of Wakefield Parish Church, now Wakefield Cathedral. It was surrounded by fields and accessed from Northgate, prior to the existence of Wood Street and Bond Street. Lindley provided the general design, with Watson creating the detail. Watson also designed much of the surrounding square (a unified design for the exterior of the houses, the interior tailored to individual residents specifications) and St John’s North.
Soon afterwards Rev Wood of the Parish Church, owner of a significant amount of land in Wakefield, together with Shepley Watson, solicitor and brother of Charles, and John Lee, local businessman, created a more direct route between the town centre and St John’s Church.

The Watson brothers and John Lee were members of a breakaway branch of Freemasonry, Gregorians, and were part of the Wakefield Chapter of Pontefract Masonic Lodge. This may have helped in gaining commissions at a time when construction was organised and financed by private initiative rather than local or regional government.

Among other buildings designed in part by Charles Watson were Sheffield Old Town Hall, Pontefract Sessions House (in the Palladian classical style, rather than his more usual Neo Grecian classical) and the Wesleyan Chapel on West Parade, since demolished. Watson was responsible for The Mechanics Institute on Wood Street, originally a music venue, later Wakefield Museum and now part of Wakefield College.

In 1808, Watson married Mary Cripps and moved to her native York in an attempt to forward his career. Mary and Charles had 8 children, 4 of whom survived to adulthood, and only 2 sons past 35 years old.

In York, Watson met James Pritchett and formed a working partnership that lasted many years. Pritchett had converted from Anglicanism to Non-Conformism, which made him part of a large community in the North. Pritchett is responsible for many prominent buildings in York, including the Grand Assembly Rooms, and also Huddersfield Rail Station.

Together Watson and Pritchett designed the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, later Stanley Royd Mental Hospital, in Wakefield. They were sponsored by the Tewks, a Quaker family concerned with humane conditions for patients.  Lunatic asylums of this time were more like prisons, but this new hospital would be designed with the good of the patients in mind.

In later life, Watson designed Hanover Square in Leeds to accommodate people moving away from industrial pollution in the city centre. The project was supposed to replicate the success of St John’s in Wakefield, but Georgian terraces were now falling out of fashion. He also completed some work, aided by his son, on the stable block at Nostell Priory.

The partnership, however, was lopsided. Pritchett was able to adapt easily, using recent innovations such as a new heating system for the West Riding Asylum. Watson wasn’t able to keep up with fashion and was more concerned with design over function; he received fewer and less prestigious commissions over time. This may be the reason that James Pritchett has national recognition while Watson is sadly neglected and really only known at a local level.

Shirley Levon has been jointly working on a project for Wakefield Museum, to catalogue a collection of photos of sporting goods company, Slazengers. They were collected by former employee, Robert France and the details will be entered in a national database. Some of the photos were part of the ‘Playmakers Exhibition’ at the Museum.

The factory was founded in Horbury in 1870 by William Sykes. A saddler, he began making footballs and then branched out to all forms of sporting equipment. The company expanded into nearby Albion Mills in 1935, and then further into Addingford Fever Hospital in the 1940s, which was used as grounds for hockey, cricket football and tennis and was opened by Mrs R.Slazenger.
Slazenger equipment was used in the 1966 World Cup, and by Fred Perry, Don Bradman and various players at Wimbledon.
The company started a number of sports teams based at the grounds and which survive, although the factory has since shut .
Shirley talked us through a number of photos, mostly from 1940s and the 1960s, taken by both professional and amateurs.
In the 1940s photographs, workers make items for the army: training equipment such as medicine balls and boxing gloves, knife sheaths, motoring gloves, and rifle stocks for Canada.  There are views of the factory floor, machinery and product at various stages of completion.

The 1960s photographs are mostly of annual company galas held at the Slazenger grounds showing employees and their families taking part in novelty races and children’s entertainment. A ‘Miss Slazenger’ is chosen. Both Knobbly knees and fancy dress are judged. Photos show sizeable crowds and the sense of community that shows the role of Slazenger Social (not just a Sports) Club.

At the end of the meeting there was the opportunity to browse a display of research undertaken as part of the Heart of Wakefield project. Both talks did an excellent job of illuminating subjects that may be close to the heart of fellow members.

14th February 2018, Tales from the Big House: Temple Newsam, by Steve Ward

A circus historian interested in Pablo Fanque, Steve has already met some of our members during their research for the Wood Street Project. However, for our February meeting his subject was Temple Newsam.

He began with the Domesday entry in 1086 when ‘Neuhusu’, a small settlement belonging to Dunstan and Glunear, Anglo-Saxon thanes, was given by William the Conqueror to Ilbert de Lacy. By the mid-twelfth century Neuhusu and its lands were granted to the rich and powerful order of the Knights Templar by Ilbert’s grandson Henry de Lacy, becoming known as the Preceptory of Temple Newsam. This period was used by Walter Scott in his novel, Ivanhoe, with ‘Templestow’ based on Temple Newsam.  Eventually the power of the Templars was seen as a threat to the secular authorities and in the early fourteenth century the Templars at Temple Newsam were dispersed. The estate, largely devoted to sheep farming, reverted to the ownership of the Crown.

In 1337 the estate was given to Sir John Darcy, a trusted advisor of Edward III. It remained in Darcy hands for two centuries with a house on the estate becoming the family seat by the late fourteenth century. In 1518 Sir Thomas Darcy, a Catholic, began to build a Tudor mansion on the present site. However the Pilgrimage of Grace, a major uprising in the North following Henry VIII’s break from Rome, was supported by Thomas and he was beheaded as a ringleader in 1537. Temple Newsam again reverted to the Crown.

Steve’s next story was that of Mary Queen of Scots and her first husband Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.  Darnley had been born and raised at Temple Newsam, an estate gifted by Henry VIII to his father Matthew Stuart, fourth Earl of Lennox. His mother was Margaret Douglas, a niece of Henry VIII, but a Catholic at heart like her son. Mary Stuart, the young Queen of Scotland fell in love and married the young, handsome Darnley in 1565 and he became ‘king consort’ in Scotland. The marriage caused great alarm in Protestant circles, but the romance did not last long after Mary became pregnant. When Darnley murdered Rizzio, her private secretary, in a fit of jealous rage he began to be seen as a liability by the queen. Mary bore Darnley’s child, Charles James Stuart, who was to become James V of Scotland and later James 1 of England, but in February 1567 the house where Darnley was staying was blown up and he was found dead in the garden.

In 1609 the young King James gave Temple Newsam to a court favourite, a younger distant relative, the second Duke of Lennox, Ludovick Stuart. Although Ludovick received continued favours from the king he had financial difficulties leading, in 1622, to the first sale of Temple Newsam for £12,000 to Sir Arthur Ingram, a self-made man who had done well out of trade and court connections. The estate remained in the hands of the Ingram family until the 1920s. Although the building did not suffer from any action during the Civil War the family was spilt in two with Arthur Ingram junior who had inherited on his father’s death in 1642 being a staunch Parliamentarian like his father, whilst his brother, Thomas was a Royalist.

The first Arthur Ingram began to develop the house as we know it today, building in red brick, the fashionable material for the period. The development of buildings and gardens continued into the eighteenth century under all the Viscounts Irwin from the first, Henry Ingram, to the ninth and last, Charles Ingram. It was Charles’s wife, Frances, who employed the landscape gardener known as Capability Brown, to redesign the grounds.  Work on his scheme began in 1765 and continued for several years although his plans were never fully completed and the present lakes are not Brown’s work.

Charles and Francis’s daughter, Isabella, Marchioness of Hartford, provided the next story.  As a rich, mature, married woman she caught the eye of the philandering Prince of Wales who courted her, visiting Temple Newsam in 1806. His initial infatuation led to a close relationship and her strong and supportive influence on the Prince lasted until 1819 when he left her just before he became king,

Steve recounted some of the stories of Temple Newsam ghosts: ’the blue lady’, reputed to be Mary Ingram, granddaughter of the first Arthur who had been waylaid by ruffians whilst travelling by coach and died of shock a few weeks later. A servant girl was murdered in 1704 and she too is reputed to haunt the house and the well into which her body was dropped. The large numbers of staff at Temple Newsam were briefly covered, in particular the gamekeepers who combatted poachers, sometimes in large gangs, as in 1827 when 60 or 70 poachers came to Temple Newsam and the Leeds Militia had to be called.

After the death of Isabella there were no male heirs and the house was left to a nephew, Hugo Maynell.  A period with fewer major events at the house followed until the marriage of Hugh Francis Meynell to Emily Wood in 1864 which brought the owners back more often to Temple Newsam. Hugh died in 1871 and Emily, Lady Maynell-Ingram, became a very rich widow with a fortune of £180,000. She was a philanthropist, providing the park for charity events, giving to local mining disasters, or funding community facilities for her tenants and the poor.  She also entertained the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George and Queen Mary, when they visited Leeds in 1894.

The final phase of Temple Newsam’s ownership in private hands was in the period before the first world war. Emily’s nephew, Edward Wood, a leading Conservative politician, inherited the house. However when war broke out Edward went to France on active service and his wife, Dorothy, housed refugees and wounded soldiers at Temple Newsam. In 1917 Edward was recalled to London and the house was shut up. By 1922 it was put up for sale as taxation began to cause financial difficulties for the landed gentry. Leeds Corporation bought the house and estate for £35,000 and set about successfully reorganising it to open to the public. When war came again the Leeds Art Gallery collection was housed there and after the Second World War the house was used as a Museum and Art Gallery. Facilities for public engagement like the home farm and the amphitheatre have continued to be added.

During questions one of our members recalled his involvement with a dig in the 1970s at the site of a former banqueting house outside the main house. Others remembered the unsightly landscape after the war following opencast mining close to the house. A final question asked if Temple Newsam could survive in public ownership in the present climate. Steve said that the Council was cutting costs but he felt its significance for Leeds as the ‘Hampton Court of the North’ would secure its future.
 
Steve’s fascinating stories of Temple Newsam swept through a thousand years of history, often linking its owners to familiar historical events and figures of national significance as well as tracing their influences on the house and park. At the end of the meeting his recent book on the subject was purchased by a number of members. Our thanks go to him for stepping in at short notice after a lecture cancellation and providing such an enjoyable and comprehensive account of the history of this well-loved house and estate.

The Ingenious Mr Elwick and the 18th Century Furnishing Trade in Wakefield
by Andrew Cox-Whitaker, furniture restorer and Regional Furniture Society researcher 
10th January 2018

Our annual joint meeting with the Civic Society in the Elizabethan Gallery was very well-attended. On this occasion a sound system was set up to ensure that everyone could hear comfortably; there were even ‘Question Time’ mikes for the audience queries at the end of the lecture. In her welcome Pam had the opportunity to congratulate Civic Society chair, Kevin Trickett, on the MBE he has been awarded in the New Year’s Honours list for his services both to Wakefield and the Civic Society movement regionally and nationally.

Our speaker was Andrew Cox-Whitaker who is a furniture restorer and conservator with a background in antique dealing and auctioneering. His work has brought him into contact with many of the country houses and museums in our region. A member of the Regional Furniture Society he has gradually become aware of the huge output of the eighteenth-century firm of Wright and Elwick and has for some time been reassessing their significance. Surprisingly little has been written about their furniture produced in Wakefield during the eighteenth century.

Richard Wright and Edward Elwick established their partnership in Wakefield in 1745. Under the general term ‘upholders’ or upholsterers such firms carried out not just the manufacture and sale of upholstered goods but were cabinet-makers, undertakers, soft furnishers, auctioneers, valuers and retailers. The firm’s workshops and warerooms were housed in the buildings surrounding Gills Yard, off Northgate. They supplied all kinds of finely-made furniture, sumptuously decorated wallpapers and almost every article that a genteel man or woman would need to furnish their interiors in the very latest and most fashionable taste.

Elwick was born in York where he served his apprenticeship, but in the 1740s he went to London. There he met Richard Wright, whose wife had been Queen Charlotte’s needlework teacher, a role which must have lent the couple great prestige. Wright became senior partner in the new business and the pair decided to move out of London, where there was a great deal of competition. Perhaps Elwick’s origins brought them to Yorkshire where a vast new furnishing market was emerging as a result of a boom in country house building and alterations. Andrew emphasised the mercantile wealth and genteel society in the town of Wakefield, where spacious elegant homes needing decoration and furnishing were being built. Wakefield was also an excellent centre for transport by road and water, and a town patronised by many local gentry. 

Leading architects in the region such as James Paine and John Carr would recommend Wright and Elwick as trusted craftsmen and suppliers who could rival the work of the best London upholders. The firm’s success appears to have been instant and bills indicating purchases from the firm are in the collections of many great houses such as Wentworth Castle, Wentworth House, Campsmount near Doncaster, Temple Newsam, Nostell Priory and Cusworth Hall.  Andrew described Elwick as the Laurence Lewellyn-Bowen of his period providing an interior design and supply service, and Elwick was able to write in 1775 that he had the ‘honour to serve most of the Nobility & Gentry in the West and North Riding.’ 

It is difficult to be sure of the attribution of existing pieces of furniture when interiors have greatly altered or some houses have been demolished. There are some items that were definitely made by Elwick and Wright, such as the Marquis of Rockingham’s writing desk, or the chairs for the Masonic Lodge which still exist today in Wakefield.  But often Andrew has only had recourse to old pictures of rooms with long-dispersed furniture which reveal sets of chairs or other items which correspond to existing pieces. He has been able to pick out recurring motifs such as the use of fretwork and pagoda tops, or characteristic techniques such as the combination of horsehair and grass stuffing in upholstery, or the use of ash in seat rails. Great inventiveness was often used – a reputation that led to his contemporary, Thomas Chippendale, making reference to the ‘ingenious Mr Elwick’.

Andrew traced the later history of the Wakefield business following the death of Wright in 1771. Elwick continued in the same trade forming a number of short-lived partnerships. Craftsmen and apprentices who had developed their skills in the workshops of Wright and Elwick set up on their own, but as these businesses expanded, the demand for their luxury items was slowly decreasing. Firms failed, partnerships split and those that did survive had to diversify or change in order to survive; even Elwick himself was to struggle.  He had brought his son Edward into the business but the young man died in debt in 1787. Following this Edward senior retired to Northallerton and his business was run by John Elwick, his nephew, in a new partnership with John Robinson. Some of their work furnished Woolley Hall and they supplied other items there such as the billiard table. John Elwick patented a design for screw threads to join legs and rails for ease of assembly, useful perhaps for military campaigns. The partnership continued until John’s bankruptcy in 1816 although Robinson remained in business.  Andrew has identified a 1777 painting of a young man which he believes to be John Elwick in his youth.

This was a particularly fascinating talk because of Andrew’s long working experience in the region’s antique furniture business. He has had opportunities to study the subtle differences in design, materials, and construction techniques of the furniture in many collections and is identifying more of the work of this highly-regarded Wakefield firm. By gathering documentary evidence from the archive collections of local landed families he is gradually able to support these findings. 

A useful question confirmed that there are no surviving records from the firm itself, making  some of Andrew’s findings necessarily tentative.  John Whitaker from Wakefield Museum indicated that they are hoping to acquire items attributed to Elwick and Wright. Andrew was involved in the restoration of the Cabinet-makers box which is now on display in the Museum.

Editor’s note:  Volume 16 of our Wakefield Historical Society Journal contains an article on this Cabinet-maker’s box and the late eighteenth-century Wakefield craftsmen whose Society is recorded in it. Available to purchase, see: publications

Oh Susannah!
Joe Williams, Heritage Corner, and Deborah Sanderson, Urban Angels.   
13th December 2017             

This was a performance about a black Victorian circus proprietor Pablo Fanque and his wife
Susannah who set up Pablo Fanque’s Circus Royal in Wood Street in 1841. There was an excellent turnout of members and other guests for our December meeting in the Elizabethan Gallery and mince pies and drinks ensured that the evening started on a convivial note. Having space to circulate and chat was very welcome.

Pam spent a few minutes outlining the development of Wood Street from its origins in the first decade of the nineteenth century to its present role as the town’s Civic Quarter. During the Society’s research for the Heart of Wakefield Project a large scrapbook collection of nineteenth-century paper memorabilia, the Cryer Collection, was identified in our Local Studies Library.  It contains a number of circus posters with illustrations of the various acts and lists of items to be performed, which Pam showed. These originated from the 1840s, and most of them advertise Pablo Fanque’s Circus.  Before the building of the Town Hall its site had been utilised by visiting circuses.

Pam then introduced Joe Williams and Deborah Sanderson who assumed the characters of Pablo and his first wife, Susannah, to explore their relationship through several significant events in their lives. On one occasion a great storm devastated their marquee during a performance at Harewood whilst touring several North Yorkshire centres. The irony of such destruction occurring to Pablo’s circus on this estate, founded on the profits of sugar plantations and slavery, was pointed up in a theatrical aside. Another event of 1848 was the collapse of one of the more permanent circus venues in Leeds. There were 600 people seated in the gallery who fell with its collapse, but Susannah was the only fatality. 

The performance was set against the background of showmanship and circus which brought out the highs and lows of the life with lively humour and occasional pathos. There were announcements of the various acts: Wallett the clown, the acrobats, the tableaux based on exciting or exotic stories, and the many equestrian displays. The prices and times of performances were heralded loudly and the texts of other archival records were used. The Wakefield printer of the period, Mr Nichols, was applied to as their local source of publicity. Audience participation involved warm-up exercises for the tightrope, and a brave volunteer, our very own Derrick, was coached in tightrope walking.

The question and answer session which followed the play was integral to the evening, providing much of the precise story’s historical context, researched by Joe. Pablo was born William Derby in Norwich in 1810, and at aged 11 he was apprenticed to a circus proprietor, William Batty, almost immediately becoming a performer on tightropes and with horses. As time went on his training and riding of horses became his main circus skill. As a young adult he took the name Pablo Fanque.

His first marriage was to Susannah Marlaw from Birmingham. She was likely to have been an acrobat but was later credited as a costume maker.  It also seems that she was influential in the running of their circus business: after her death Pablo found himself bankrupt on at least one occasion. They had a son called Lionel, who, in 1918, was recorded as ‘the oldest clown in England’. Upon Susannah’s death Pablo married a young performer, Elizabeth, but this does not seem to have become a working partnership in the same way as his first marriage. He had two further sons, Charles and Edward, and the family was based in Stockport.

With Susannah, Pablo had established his own circus by the early 1840s and performed across the North of England, becoming recognised as ‘the ruler of the circus world in Yorkshire and Lancashire’. His advertisements always included riding displays, perhaps using cavalrymen. There were buildings in some towns which could be rented for larger events like markets and circuses, but a marquee was also used to tour around smaller centres. Pablo’s reputation grew and he had influential support and contacts through his membership of the Freemasons and of the Oddfellows fraternity. He was interviewed by Dickens whose novel ‘Hard Times’ includes a circus. Upon Pablo’s death in 1871 his hearse was watched by a huge crowd, reported to be 10,000, as it progressed through Leeds to Woodhouse Cemetery. His gravestone is located there at the base of his first wife Susannah Darby's grave.

The evening’s mix of entertainment and history was an interesting experience for the Society.  Joe and Deborah morphed in and out of character, carrying us into the hectic circus world to which the audience responded with much enthusiasm. There was curiosity about the circus of the period, and the leading role of ‘a man of colour’ within this. The research by means of newspapers and posters is revealing the huge popularity of this and other circuses in our town and region during the Victorian period. Joe commented after our meeting on the gratifying response from our audience, interested in all the detail. Deborah was rather rushed: she had to return to London immediately as she had been asked at the last minute to take part in a ground-breaking project to make circus training accessible to amputees, who will then perform in a professional show by highly acclaimed theatre company Graeae. Circus continues to fascinate.

Of course it is the Beatles’ introduction to Sergeant Peppers’s Lonely Hearts Club Band which has provided the peg for our publicity. However John Lennon used poetic licence in his lyrics. The first lines of the actual poster he read show that the advertisement was for Pablo’s Circus:

Pablo FANQUE'S CIRCUS ROYAL,Town Meadows, Rochdale,
Grandest night of the Season! and positively the last night but three!
Being for the Benefit of Mr Kite (late of Wells’s Circus)
and Mr. J. Henderson, the celebrated Somerset thrower, wire dancer, vaulter, rider etc.

The People of the Manor of Wakefield, 1781-82, by David Scriven
8th November 2017

Our November talk was given by David Scriven editor of ‘The Court Roll of the Manor of Wakefield, 1781-1782’ recently published in the prestigious YHAS Manor Court Rolls Series.

With an area of over 100 square miles the manor of Wakefield was one of the largest in England. During its long history it was the property of royalty, nobility and gentry and in the period covered by this talk its lord was Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds, whose Yorkshire seat was at Kiveton Park. The duke left the management of the manor to its steward, the Rotherham barrister Samuel Tooker, and to Tooker’s deputy, Robert Lumb of Wakefield. These two men organised the three-weekly meetings of the manor court which were held in Wakefield’s moot hall where the chief business was the registration of transfers of copyhold properties recorded in the court roll.

The numerous people mentioned in the 1781-1782 court roll had many occupations. There were farmers such as Anthony Abson of Stanley and Thomas Fletcher of Northowram, both of whom bought land to enlarge their farms. There were large numbers of cloth manufacturers, among them Michael Coope of Horbury, who like other clothiers combined farming and manufacturing. Then there were merchants like John Edwards of Northowram who grew rich exporting cloth to Portugal and importing wine and dyestuffs. In addition, there were men in the professions – medicine, the law, the Church and the army.

The social status of the copyholders also varied, with members of the gentry at one extreme and at the other labourers. Most copyholders, however, came from the middling ranks of Georgian society, today’s middle classes. Among the most successful was John Royds whose Halifax house was fit to entertain the King of Denmark during his visit to England in the 1760s. Only a small number of copyholders were women, all either widows or spinsters, a reflection of the legal position of women at the time. Among the women’s wills annexed to the roll is that of Elizabeth Tillotson, who made careful provision for a tomb to be erected over the grave of her parents in Sowerby churchyard. Other wills reveal family quarrels such as the one between the Reverend Sutcliffe and his nephew, a quarrel which had, in Sutcliffe’s words, ‘embittered his nights and days’.

The meetings of the manor court in 1781-1782 took place during the final stages of the American War of Independence. Among the harmful economic effects of the war on the country as a whole was a rise in the number of bankruptcies and the roll shows that a number of copyholders were in financial difficulties. One of the political effects of the war was the creation of a movement for parliamentary reform which was led by the Yorkshire Association whose leadership included not only Samuel Tooker, the manor’s steward, but also prominent copyholders such as the Reverend Zouch of Sandal.

In brief, then, David had introduced us to some of the people of the manor of Wakefield in 1781-1782 who represented a cross-section of provincial society at a particularly troubled time in British history.

A lively questions session followed allowing David to explore further aspects of manorial and general West Riding history of the period.  In the western areas the clothiers around Halifax produced worsted cloth, and in the east around Wakefield they were making woollen cloth. Wakefield’s own cloth hall, the Tammy Hall, traded in tammies which were worsted cloth with a glaze brought to Wakefield from the west.

The copyhold tenure of the Manor of Wakefield survived into the 1920s. David described the two jurisdictions of the manor: the Court Baron relating to property transactions, and the other, the Court Leat, which served various manorial roles and controls such as bye-laws, minor criminal offences and weights and measures. The two jurisdictions were slightly different in geographical coverage, the Court Leat being more extensive than the Court Baron. Although the Court Leat existed in the eighteenth century the records have been lost from the 1730s so that his volume recorded the work of the Courts Baron only.

David’s choice of the year 1781-2 took place several years ago at Claremont, the former home of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, where the Rolls were held until their recent move into the Brotherton Library, Leeds University.  He worked from photographs taken then. Many of the eighteenth century rolls are in poor condition but not this one: it was legible, and not too bulky. As has been seen his choice proved fascinating because it was a year of crisis with war and threats of invasion. The economic impact of these events in West Yorkshire was felt in its main industry of making cloth: the system was a chain based on credit and, as the markets from America and then Europe disappeared, the whole area suffered a recession.

Finally David was asked about the success of the Yorkshire Association. He felt that although the Associations’ economic reforms had met with some success, their desire to reform a corrupt political system, based on bribery in elections and the control of sinecures, had not. Some aristocrats who had favoured the Association did not want to lose this control, and so the hopes for an extension of the franchise to include copyholders were dashed.           

11 October 2017   
Nurses of Passchendaele: Caring for the Wounded of the Ypres Campaigns, 1914-1918  
Christine Hallett, Professor of Nursing History, University of Manchester
 
Professor Hallett’s new book on this subject was reviewed in the Society’s August Newsletter, and at the end of our October meeting a long queue waited for the author’s signature in their newly-acquired copies. This outline will therefore cover the talk briefly, followed by some of the questions raised by the audience.

Christine introduced us to some of the nurses working at Casualty Clearing Stations (CCS) at Brandhoek during the third Battle of Ypres in the summer of 1917. Sister-in-charge at No 32 CCS was Kate Leward, a very experience nurse, and at No 44 CCS Minnie Wood, from Sandal, was the newly-promoted sister-in-charge. Working under Minnie Wood was a recent arrival, Nellie Spindler from Wakefield. The Australian Clearing Station No 3 arrived in late July. Together they formed a large, mainly-tented hospital with a number of surgical teams. They were very close to the front lines in order to treat casualties as speedily as possible.

From the allied assault on the Messine Ridge of 7th June 1917 casualties flooded into No 32 CCS.  By 31st July the big push had begun. In the early part of August all three Stations were open as mud-encased men with horrendous injuries arrived. The nurses fought for the lives of those who had survived the journey from the battlefield. Clinical techniques were constantly adapting to the types of injuries caused by the new industrial weapons of war, such as mustard gas. Even in the Centres, shells constantly pass overhead and aerial bombardment increased: the nurses were ‘on the front row, the dress circle‘ of the battle.

Christine used photos of some of the individual nurses she mentioned and read passages from their letters and journals to illustrate different aspects of their working lives and their responses to the overwhelming intensity and danger of their situation.  On 21st August, after an exhausting night shift, Nellie Spindler, the young Wakefield nurse, was killed by a bomb which landed within the hospital compound. It was believed that the CCS’s were being targeted and 100 personnel were evacuated. When they returned on 25th August the safety of the compound had been somewhat improved and the shifts were more normal for a time, with occasions for some entertainment, such as piano music and singsongs, at which the presence of the women was much appreciated.

The final assault in this campaign was on 10th November. This period had been the most horrific of the war: at the battle of Passchendaele over 70,000 men had died and there had been 275,000 casualties as a result of the weapons of mass destruction and the apparent strategy of ‘attrition’.

The talk generated many questions. Asked about her sources Christine mentioned an array of Archives which reflected the Commonwealth involvement in the medical work as well as the fighting. In England there are many letters and diaries at Kew, and there are also two nurses’ diaries at the West Yorkshire History Centre. Christine has found that as she publicises the subject she is being given access to material from people’s lofts and private collections.

Christine was asked how nurses adjusted to civilian life after their traumatic experiences in the war. In general Christine felt they did not find it easy on their return to the hierarchical structures of hospitals at home - on the front they had been given a great deal of autonomy. Many went into relief work with organisations like the Red Cross and a number wrote their memoirs.

The high use of morphine raised another question about the lack of addicts after the war. One explanation was that the medical profession had tried to limit usage of morphine when possible. The survival rate of the wounded who reached the CCS centres was about 80%.

Rest periods and length of duties varied: nurses often spent two or three years at base hospitals with breaks every two to three weeks. When on CCS duty they tried to ensure a rest period after 6 weeks, but it was often nearer 6 months and leave could be cancelled in emergencies.

Asked about the retrieval of bodies for burial, Christine reminded us that there were 55,500 men who had not been identified at all. Even in the spaciously-organised British cemeteries the inscriptions often do not reflect what is below ground, especially when original burial areas were disturbed again by bombing.

Finally we were reminded of the Cathedral evensong service to be held on Nov 12th at 3.30pm. The collection will be in aid of the Nellie Spindler Appeal which will go towards a memorial to British nurses who died in two world wars: £70,000 out of the £80,000 target has already been collected. Also it is possible to sponsor a nurse - Christine herself has sponsored Nellie Spindler whose father was a police inspector in Wakefield. The family lived on Stanley Road until his retirement when they moved to Horbury.

Information about the Nursing Memorial Appeal can be found at: http://www.nursingmemorialappeal.org.uk

13 September 2017: The plight of human fortune and the pitilessness of death: The Black Death and the Church in Yorkshire, 1349 by Gary Brannan, Access Archivist, Borthwick Institute for Archives, University of York.

Gary will be familiar to many of our members in his former role as an archivist at Wakefield, and as our guide at the Borthwick Institute on a recent excursion. He has remained a member of our Society and its Council despite his move to the Borthwick a couple of years ago. Gary introduced his subject by reminding us that our venue, the Chantry Chapel, which was packed for this lecture, was a new building at the time of the Black Death.

In July 1348 Archbishop Zouche of York described the ‘great mortalities, pestilences and infections of the air’ already occurring in other parts of the country and Europe.  Here there was a sense of foreboding, with floods and earthquakes, but it was not until about February 1349 that the ‘great pestilence’ reached Yorkshire ports, quickly spreading through the Diocese of York. From 1339 this outbreak of infection had slowly moved along the great overland trade route from China, crossing Mongolia and the steppes of Russia. In Europe Genoese trading ships probably carried the disease nearer and in 1348, the disease appeared in British ports. The source of the disease seems to have been marmots, susceptible to infections of bubonic plague and able to infect the black rat, the common flea of which could transfer the disease to humans. The infection in humans was so deadly that there was little to do if it took hold but to pray. Today it is identified as a form of Yersinia Pestis, which still recurs in different parts of the world. As this plague continued to spread across the country it was seen as apocalyptic. To illustrate its impact Gary asked us to stand and turn over the A5 sheets he had distributed at the start of his talk. Those people with a picture of death sat down, the rest remained standing. Such was the loss of population in these few years, with 80 million people in Europe reduced to about 30 million -  a mortality rate of about 60%.

Gary’s research is largely based on sources at the Borthwick where he is managing a project to index  the Archbishops’ Registers for the period. He argued that registered wills made during this period are particularly useful in showing personal reactions to the proximity of death, and also providing a means of tracking the spread of the plague. As a Batley boy, Gary was delighted to find the will of  William Aberford, the Vicar of Batley, the only will from 1349 from the modern West Yorkshire.  Aberford was a member of the secular clergy and thus allowed to own goods. His will shows a spread of bequests to local institutions, the parish, the community and to specific individuals. Altogether he left a considerable sum which would have had a significant impact on the lives of his community. His will is dated between 17th and 24th May 1349, the plague year, and, although it cannot be certain that he died of the ‘pestilence’ which had arrived in York by the beginning of April 1349, it seems likely. The parish clergy were very vulnerable, many dying within a few months.

Such wills, recorded at the Archbishops’ Courts, were proved within a month in general, and thus probate instruments are another very useful source. In the York collection there are 266 of these completed between 1339-59 with a peak, of course, in July and August of 1349.  By July 1349 the Archbishop’s Registers were not entering full wills, only shortened Probate Acts, the record-keeping becoming less careful because of the loss of suitable manpower.  Gary’s map of the geographical spread of these 1349 probate records clearly shows movement inland along the river systems from coastal ports.

Gary has also referred to the Manor of Wakefield Court Rolls to explore evidence of the impact of the disease within this huge tract of the West Riding. The Court of the Manor sat every three weeks but from July to Oct 1349 there are no entries. Although the pestilence is not directly mentioned there are later entries relating to property which indicate high mortality, and the value of the Manor’s mills and other annual fees dropped by more than half between 1342 and 1350. From an unpublished study of the rolls Gary found that women became more visible after the plague years, with a third of debt cases involving widows trying to collect what they were owed. The loss of life was immense but for survivors opportunities emerged, for example workers could demand more because of the shortage of labour. The miracle of survival had created a world with new possibilities.

Despite the subject matter, Gary’s talk was very entertaining with audience participation, lively background exposition, and stories of individuals. Ever the archivist, Gary showed us fleeting glimpses of the different types of documents he had used, the writing and language indecipherable to most of us, but he skilfully revealed their possibilities for research through meticulous and imaginative analysis and presentation of findings. These led to - inevitably tentative - but convincing hypotheses about the impact of the Black Death in our region.

Questions included reference to the skeletons of victims of this pandemic unearthed during the recent Crossrail construction in London.  The mortality among the upper echelons of society it seems was less extreme, perhaps because of their better general health and nourishment, and their greater mobility.

 

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